Thesis: The most serious threat to the marine environment is pollution generated by man, this
pollution falls into the categories of oil, toxic chemicals, debris, and raw sewage which
all must be sanctioned against.
I. Oil pollution at seas.
A. Oil spills on seas per year.
B. How does oil spill.
C. What is ship’s effects.
D. Damages of oil pollution.
E. Spilled oil cleaning.
F. Cost of cleaning the seas.
G. Sanctions for oil pollution.
II. Toxic chemical pollution.
A. How much chemical pour out in seas per year.
B. Why toxic chemicals are discharged in the sea.
C. Damages of chemical pollution.
D. Chemical toxic cleaning.
E. Cost of cleaning the seas.
F. Sanctions for chemical toxic pollution.
III. Debris pollution.
A. Components of debris.
B. Where does debris come from
C. Damages of debris pollution.
D. Debris cleaning.
E. Most founded debris Items on the beaches.
F. Sanctions for debris pollution.
IV. Raw sewage pollution.
A. How much sewage pour out to seas per year.
B. Sewage pollution in our local creeks.
C. How does sewage be a threat.
D. Damages of chemical pollution.
E. Precautions for sewage pollution.
F. What are the major water pollutants
G. Sanctions for sewage pollution.
Since the beginning of the world human beings have been in the habit of working with
nature but they have not respect nature properly. Increasing population, and developing
industrialization has caused nature pollution. Industrialization makes way for the problems
about pollution which is decreasing the water usage of the world. Water usage has dropped
because of marine pollution. Marine pollution is usually caused by human activity. By
polluting the seas they are become unclean or impure by putting thing into them that are either
not or exceed natural levels such as plastic bottles, oil or chemicals. This must be balanced to
protect the fountain of life. The most serious threat to the marine environment is pollution
generated by man, this pollution falls into the categories of oil, toxic chemicals, debris, and
raw sewage which all must be sanctioned against.
First of all, traditional shipping and oil transportation routes are more exposed to
the impacts of oil-polluted discharges from tankers and other vessels than other areas. The
rising of the petroleum products released with seas, that unbelievable quantities attain 1
millions per/year directs the world countries to be ensured (Yönsel, 2001, pp 94 - 97). Moreover, the Exxon Valdez pour out 11 million gallons of oil into the Pristine sea of Alaska on March 23,1989 (Özçayır, 1999, p. 44). Also, pollution with cause of burdening and unshipping of ships on the seaports when purify the tubes and tanks in ships caused pollution (Mete, 1997, p. 71). Therefore, birds which congregate in large number on sea or shorelines to breed, feed or moult are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution (Impact of Oil on Specific Marine habitats, n.d.,n.p.). Sorbet booms and barriers are used to eliminate mobile oil, they function well, only if thin, because once their surface are coated, they cannot absorb any more
(Containing and Cleaning, n.d.,n.p.). The insurance on the companies in Canada during last
years came over a dollars, to cover the expenses in cleaning oil overflows (Oil Tanks, n.d.,d.p.). A federal judge in Alaska gave Exxon Corp. $6.75 billion with 32.000 the
fishermen, the basic owners and others which were influenced by the 11 million gallons oil
which poured after the grounding of Exxon Valdez in clear William Sound (“Judge Says Exxon Owes $6.75 Billion For Valdes”, n.d.,n.p.). As it is seen above even there is a sanction, oil pollution is increasing day by day.
Second reason for marine pollution is toxic pollutants which in the ocean ecosystem
have massive impacts on the plants and animals. Manures are a principal source of food
350.000 tons of phosphate and 370.000 tons of nitrogen manure are use each year, much by
this drains into the sea (Chemical Pollution, n.d.,n.p.). The first covering on ships were line
and arsenic which leached into the sea water killing sea creatures and were slowly replaced by
chemical paints which were responsible for mutations and other harmful effects on sea
creatures (Turkish Shipping World n.d. n.p.). Mete says, hazardous agricultural additives
mixed with and assimilated by water and then entered the food chain (1997, p 72). Moreover,
oils and other chemicals should be properly disposed of and the meteorological conditions
checked before using agriculture chemicals outside (What You Can Do Right Now To Stop
Ocean Pollution, n.d., n.p.). The United States, $11.500.000 was spent in 1992 for the
program of clean beaches (Project Summary #34, n.d., n.p.). Although, volunteers poured
chemicals in the sea, to destroy the algae and networks used, to sweep mud, that it would look
at rather well impressing visitors, the highest punishment is only $12.000 (Pollution, n.d.,
n.p.). So, people have to be more careful.
The third reason is debris pollution is contributed of human waste, garbage, and
plastics. This firm pollution of human waste water and national waste water, rivers of factory
of the acids and toxic metals, of the engine oil of - garages and flows of edge, the chemicals
of farm which are washed far by the country by rains, place of installation of building
remains, radioactive waste of the power stations and oil of the wells, refineries and tankers
(Water Pollution, n.d., n.p.). Also, indifference beach users, drivers of boat and tourists on the
beach, containers of loading, ships of passenger and commercial machines of fishing, waste
discharge or by cargo form sewage pollution (Beach Sweeps, n.d., n.p.). So, over 100.000
mammals and over 700.000 seabirds die per year from fishing nets, strapping, and plastic
beer-can holders (Marine Debris. a.n.d., n.p.). When the plastic threw into the sea it go down
and fill rich nature plant cover so young fishes can die when they can not find fish food and
this incident is quickly rises (Marine Plastic Pollution, 2004, n.p. ). But, if people join the
free Activist Network, They receive notices when needed to protect and strengthen laws like
Clean Water Act. (Pocket Guide to Marine Debris. b.n.d, n.p.). Debris items total number
reported are cigarette filters (6.373.283), food bags/wrappers (3.053.561), caps/lids
(1.731.320), beverage bottles (1.254.434) etc. (Pocket Guide to Marine Debris, n.p., 2004).
There is an emergency telephone number in Great Britain that can be used in the event of
somebody seeing beach pollution (Seas Fit for Life. n.d., n.p.). As it seen, debris pollution is
related with people’s mercy.
The last reason of marine pollution is raw sewage can create a health hazard. Million
of gallons of waste water believed of the lower pour narrow science in clear water (Clean-Up
Time., n.d., n.p.). Also, private or general lines of sewer are broken, drains are blocked by
roots of tree or the other causes, waste water pumping unloading material of the overflow
developed at the point (Sewage Pollution., n.d., n.p.). Waste overflowing with the sea by men
in the urban sectors was inside a threat in the future (Mete, Feb 97, p 72). Moreover, most
people go boating for just a few hours in a day, so the solution may be as simple as going the
toilet before leaving the shore just like before a long car trip (Frequently Asked Questions on
Sewage, n.d., n.p.). So, there are some categories of matters of water pollution, those are a
bacterium, viruses, of protozoan and endless screws parasites which record waste water
systems and wasting (Water pollution FAQ, n.d., n.p.). Therefore, deliverable information of
wound immediately of $750 to a private individual or $1500 in Corporation, requires the
small cuts of the payments. Businesses with the court activity, can require punishments of
$250.000 and $1 M (Frequently Asked Questions on Sewage, n.d., n.p.). Unfortunately, there
is a big problem with our seas about sewage but, we are still indifference with sea purity.
In conclusion, marine pollution become a major risk at countries which have a coastal side. The most dangerous kinds of marine pollution are categorized with , toxic chemicals, debris, and raw sewage. The dimension of alarm was reached. More over, because of enormous in crease in earth population, the man kind needs always more ground and food. It must however learn how to preserve the continental biotopes on which it depends, as well as the immense reserve of potential food which is the sea. If the seas destroyed by man and poisons water, with long, seas not available for wild life. The desert will advance and the sea will not be soon any more in capacity to provide the richness that it so liberally gave him during centuries, without never to have received, in exchange, the respect to which it has the right. Finally, people should not be satisfied in a short time because of the disability of water and mankind have to find more intelligent solves.
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